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Happy National Aviation Day and Happy Birthday Orville Wright

Happy National Aviation Day and Happy Birthday Orville Wright

Today is National Aviation Day and also Orville Wright’s 145th birthday.

Orville Wright

Orville Wright – August 19, 1871 to January 30, 1948

From Wikipedia:

The Wright brothers, Orville (August 19, 1871 – January 30, 1948) and Wilbur (April 16, 1867 – May 30, 1912), were two American brothers, inventors, and aviation pioneers who are generally credited[1][2][3] with inventing, building, and flying the world’s first successful airplane. They made the first controlled, sustained flight of a powered, heavier-than-air aircraft on December 17, 1903, four miles south of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. In 1904–05 the brothers developed their flying machine into the first practical fixed-wing aircraft. Although not the first to build and fly experimental aircraft, the Wright brothers were the first to invent aircraft controls that made fixed-wing powered flight possible.

The brothers’ fundamental breakthrough was their invention of three-axis control, which enabled the pilot to steer the aircraft effectively and to maintain its equilibrium.[4][5][6][7] This method became and remains standard on fixed-wing aircraft of all kinds.[8][9] From the beginning of their aeronautical work, the Wright brothers focused on developing a reliable method of pilot control as the key to solving “the flying problem”. This approach differed significantly from other experimenters of the time who put more emphasis on developing powerful engines.[10] Using a small homebuilt wind tunnel, the Wrights also collected more accurate data than any before, enabling them to design and build wings and propellers that were more efficient than any before.[11][12] Their first U.S. patent, 821,393, did not claim invention of a flying machine, but rather, the invention of a system of aerodynamic control that manipulated a flying machine’s surfaces.[13]

They gained the mechanical skills essential for their success by working for years in their shop with printing presses, bicycles, motors, and other machinery. Their work with bicycles in particular influenced their belief that an unstable vehicle like a flying machine could be controlled and balanced with practice.[14] From 1900 until their first powered flights in late 1903, they conducted extensive glider tests that also developed their skills as pilots. Their bicycle shop employee Charlie Taylor became an important part of the team, building their first airplane engine in close collaboration with the brothers.

The Wright brothers’ status as inventors of the airplane has been subject to counter-claims by various parties. Much controversy persists over the many competing claims of early aviators. Edward Roach, historian for the Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park argues that they were excellent self-taught engineers who could run a small company, but they did not have the business skills or temperament to dominate the growing aviation industry.

 

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Air base attacks and defensive counters: Historical Lessons and Future Challenges

Full Article: Air Base Attacks and Defensive Counters: Historical Lessons and Future Challenges
Source: RAND Corporation

Since the end of the Cold War, U.S. dominance in conventional power projection has allowed American airpower to operate from sanctuary, largely free from enemy attack. This led to a reduced emphasis on air-base defense measures and the misperception that sanctuary was the normal state of affairs rather than an aberration. The emergence of the long-range, highly accurate, conventional missile (both ballistic and cruise) as a threat to air bases is now widely recognized in the U.S. defense community, and, with that recognition, there is a growing appreciation that this era of sanctuary is coming to an end. Consequently, there is renewed interest in neglected topics, such as base hardening, aircraft dispersal, camouflage, deception, and air-base recovery and repair.

This report is intended to provide a reference on air-base attack and defense to inform public debate, as well as government deliberations, on what has become known as the anti-access problem, specifically as it applies to air-base operations. The report explores the history of air-base attacks in the past century and describes the American way of war that emerged after the fall of the Soviet Union. It then argues that emerging threat systems are disruptive to this way of war and will require new concepts of power projection. Finally, the report identifies five classes of defensive options that have proven valuable in past conflicts and offers recommendations on how best to win the battle of the airfields.

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Jet Lag in Military and Civil Aviation: A Review Study

Jet Lag in Military and Civil Aviation: A Review Study
Source: Journal of Archives in Military Medicine

Background:
Physiological or behavioral cycles are generated by an internal pacemaker with an oscillatory frequency of approximately 24.2 hours which are named as circadian rhythm. This internal pacemaker is located at hypothalamus as suprachiasmatic nucleus and control sleep-wake cycle, with wakefulness commonly promoted during daylight hours and sleep promoted during evening hours.

Objectives:
The aim of this article is to provide a framework for understanding the biological basis of jet lag and recommend management strategies. Understanding jet lag can help us to address the broader problem of circadian misalignment, which has increasingly been associated with increased risk of cancer (colorectal and breast), metabolic diseases, cardiovascular dysfunction, mood disorders (depression), and cognitive decline.

Materials and Methods:
The current study is a review article based on literatures in the field of aerospace medicine. It is hoped that this presentation will be useful for those who are interested in aviation medicine.

Results:
Jet Lag usually experienced by individuals who cross at least 2 time zones by intercontinental flights. Symptoms and signs usually reveal after 1-2 days of arrival in relation with circadian system complication and cause insomnia, sleepiness, general malaise, gastrointestinal upset (anorexia, indigestion and defecation disorders), neural (fatigue, headaches, and irritability) and cognitive impairments (concentration, judgment and memory disturbance), etc.
Eastward travel requires an advance phase and these persons often complain about initiating sleep at early evening and being awake at early morning. Thus, eastbound travelers have difficult adaptation and worsen features rather than westbound travelers. The incidence of jet lag often has not been reported, so the accurate prevalence is uncertain.

Conclusions:
Due to the progressive development of aviation and intercontinental travels, the awareness about jet lag and its complications, prevention and treatment for all population especially aviators and medical groups are necessary.

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