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CRS — Cyberwarfare and Cyberterrorism: In Brief (March 27, 2015)

Cyberwarfare and Cyberterrorism: In Brief (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via Federation of American Scientists)

Recent incidents have highlighted the lack of consensus internationally on what defines a cyberattack, an act of war in cyberspace, or cyberterrorism. Cyberwar is typically conceptualized as state-on-state action equivalent to an armed attack or use of force in cyberspace that may trigger a military response with a proportional kinetic use of force. Cyberterrorism can be considered “the premeditated use of disruptive activities, or the threat thereof, against computers and/or networks, with the intention to cause harm or further social, ideological, religious, political or similar objectives, or to intimidate any person in furtherance of such objectives.” Cybercrime includes unauthorized network breaches and theft of intellectual property and other data; it can be financially motivated, and response is typically the jurisdiction of law enforcement agencies. Within each of these categories, different motivations as well as overlapping intent and methods of various actors can complicate response options.

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RAND: Markets for Cybercrime Tools and Stolen Data: Hackers’ Bazaar

Markets for Cybercrime Tools and Stolen Data: Hackers’ Bazaar
Source: RAND Corporation

Criminal activities in cyberspace are increasingly facilitated by burgeoning black markets for both tools (e.g., exploit kits) and take (e.g., credit card information). This report, part of a multiphase study on the future security environment, describes the fundamental characteristics of these markets and how they have grown into their current state to explain how their existence can harm the information security environment. Understanding the current and predicted landscape for these markets lays the groundwork for follow-on exploration of options to minimize the potentially harmful influence these markets impart. Experts agree that the coming years will bring more activity in darknets, more use of crypto-currencies, greater anonymity capabilities in malware, and more attention to encrypting and protecting communications and transactions; that the ability to stage cyberattacks will likely outpace the ability to defend against them; that crime will increasingly have a networked or cyber component, creating a wider range of opportunities for black markets; and that there will be more hacking for hire, as-a-service offerings, and brokers. Experts disagree, however, on who will be most affected by the growth of the black market (e.g., small or large businesses, individuals), what products will be on the rise (e.g., fungible goods, such as data records and credit card information; non-fungible goods, such as intellectual property), or which types of attacks will be most prevalent (e.g., persistent, targeted attacks; opportunistic, mass “smash-and-grab” attacks).

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RAND: Markets for Cybercrime Tools and Stolen Data: Hackers’ Bazaar

Markets for Cybercrime Tools and Stolen Data: Hackers’ Bazaar
Source: RAND Corporation

Criminal activities in cyberspace are increasingly facilitated by burgeoning black markets for both tools (e.g., exploit kits) and take (e.g., credit card information). This report, part of a multiphase study on the future security environment, describes the fundamental characteristics of these markets and how they have grown into their current state to explain how their existence can harm the information security environment. Understanding the current and predicted landscape for these markets lays the groundwork for follow-on exploration of options to minimize the potentially harmful influence these markets impart. Experts agree that the coming years will bring more activity in darknets, more use of crypto-currencies, greater anonymity capabilities in malware, and more attention to encrypting and protecting communications and transactions; that the ability to stage cyberattacks will likely outpace the ability to defend against them; that crime will increasingly have a networked or cyber component, creating a wider range of opportunities for black markets; and that there will be more hacking for hire, as-a-service offerings, and brokers. Experts disagree, however, on who will be most affected by the growth of the black market (e.g., small or large businesses, individuals), what products will be on the rise (e.g., fungible goods, such as data records and credit card information; non-fungible goods, such as intellectual property), or which types of attacks will be most prevalent (e.g., persistent, targeted attacks; opportunistic, mass “smash-and-grab” attacks).

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"Ike and Dutch: Mentor, Protégé, and Common Sense by Dr. Gene Kopelson" presentation at the U.S. Army Heritage and Education Center

https://youtu.be/9jZSI6bF7d0

Published on Feb 24, 2017

As Ronald Reagan traveled across the United States campaigning for the highest office in the land, the Governor of California possessed an ace in his hand unmatched by his opponents: the ear and advice of former president Dwight D. Eisenhower. Reagan was in constant contact with Ike, following his advice at every turn and going so far as to base his entire 1966 campaign on his mentor’s own successful run years before. Eisenhower’s astute view of internal Washington politics, foreign affairs, military matters, and the swirling pool of primary rivals, provided his protégé the fuel he needed to learn, and eventually win, the war of words. In his latest book, Reagan’s 1968 Dress Rehearsal: Ike, RFK, and Reagan’s Emergence as a World Statesman, Dr. Gene Kopelson outlines the story of Reagan’s first presidential bid with an in-depth look behind the scenes. On Wednesday, February 15, 2017 at the U.S. Army Heritage and Education Center in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, Dr. Kopelson gave a lecture titled, “Ike and Dutch: Mentor, Protégé, and Common Sense,” to delve deeper into the relationship between Reagan and his mentor and how it not only shaped Reagan’s future campaigns, but his presidency, as well.

In his lecture at the USAHEC, Dr. Kopelson uses never-before-tapped audio clips, interviews with the original 1968 campaign staff, Eisenhower’s personal diary, and material straight from personal correspondence to show how Eisenhower influenced Reagan’s politics and eventually, his far-reaching presidential policies. From Reagan’s hawkish views on Vietnam to his perspective on the Arab-Israeli situation, his groundbreaking steps with Gorbachev and the Soviets to nuclear defense, Eisenhower and Reagan had a close and personal relationship which changed America’s future.

Lecture Date: February 15, 2017

Length: 52 Minutes
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